Skip to main content

Full text of "Handbook of the birds of Golden Gate Park, San Francisco"

See other formats



San Francisco 








of the 

Birds of 
Golden Gate Park 

San Francisco 


Joseph Mailliard, Curator Emeritus 


[special publication] 





Foreword 3 

Wild Birds Seen on Lakes 6 

Birds Frequenting Lake Margin Vegetation 24 

Birds Seen Most Often in Flight 32 

Birds of Conifers and High Trees 36 

Birds of Ground, Grass-land or Bushes. 52 

Birds of Willow Thickets 66 

Introduced Species on Stow Lake 82 

Index 83 

«4n »» - 


Since its development from the sand dune stage, Golden 
Gate Park has become a well known visiting ground for bird 
lovers of all ages, for students of our vicinal bird life and for 
many others who might, with a little encouragement, become 
bird lovers. Extending from the ocean beach for three miles 
straight into the city of San Francisco and covering a thousand 
acres of hill and dale, wood and meadowland, it is a great out- 
door aviary, where wild birds are free to come and go. 

From time to time records and partial lists of the birds of 
the Park have appeared, all of limited scope. In recent years, 
however, there has been a growing demand for a handbook of 
convenient size that would contain a comprehensive list of the 
Park birds, accompanied by sufficient description as to enable 
students and interested visitors readily to determine their 
species. The present writer was repeatedly asked to undertake 
this work and finally was prevailed upon to do so, as time and 
circumstance might permit. 

Meanwhile, with the idea of advancing such an undertak- 
ing, Miss Cornelia C. Pringle and Mrs. Inez Mexia, members 
of the Audubon Association of the Pacific, with the assistance 
of Dr. H. C. Bryant, of the Department of Education of the 
California Fish and Game Commission, had prepared a manu' 
script covering notes, records of and references to birds found 
in the Park, and containing many suggestions in regard to the 
arrangement and grouping of the subjects involved, the stress- 
ing of certain features, etc., as brought out in their experiences 
while accompanying field parties of students and visitors. This 
paper was most kindly turned over to the present writer, who 
greatly appreciates the assistance that it has been to him. In 
addition to this, Mr. Frank Tose, Group Artist and Chief of 
Exhibits of the California Academy of Sciences, generously 
offered to try his hand at some line drawings for illustrations. 

— 3 — 

This offer was gratefully accepted and Mr. Tose, assisted by 
his son, Cecil, who did most of the ink work as well as some 
of the drawing, supplied the illustrations for the ninety-four 
cuts accompanying the descriptions in this handbook. 

With the combination of concise description, illustration, 
and the information on the opposite page, the author hopes 
that those who use this booklet will find sufficient assistance 
to enable them, after a little practice, to identify the birds that 
they may see in the Park, and to recognize these species wher- 
ever they meet them in the San Francisco Bay region. 

The idea intended to be conveyed is that of birds as seen in 
the field rather than in the hand; the description of the "field 
marks 11 are set forth in simple language and many minor de- 
tails are omitted for the sake of brevity and to avoid confusion 
in a beginner's mind. Color patterns, dark and light markings, 
etc., can, of course, in the ink drawings only be indicated by 
shading varied in kind or intensity, but careful reading of the 
accompanying description should fix the color in the observer's 
mind. In some cases the position of a bird is slightly distorted 
in order to show as many field marks as possible. The length 
of each species follows the technical name, extreme measure- 
ments being given for birds that vary greatly in size, and for 
the others average measurement only. The suggestion is offered 
that observers will find it of much benefit to familiarize them- 
selves with the sense of measurement of birds as seen at vary- 
ing distances. 

The reader is to understand that the descriptive matter ap- 
plies to the male of a species unless otherwise specified, and 
that the drawing is always of a male. To avoid possible con- 
fusion and to save space, description of young and immature 
birds has mostly been omitted. On account of the great di- 
vergence of opinion among leading authorities in regard to a 
correct way of doing so, no attempt has been made to express 

4 — 

bird notes by spelling them, except in a few cases where the 
ideas of other authorities coincide with those of the present 
writer. In most cases it simply cannot be satisfactorily done! 

Among the suggestions in the manuscript above mentioned 
was that of grouping the birds under headings indicating 
where each species is most apt to be found in the Park, and 
this plan has been adopted. Where a species is commonly 
found in more than one association the name only is given 
under the less likely heading, followed by a reference to the 
page, under the more likely heading, where it is described. 

The capital letters following the names in the index supply 
a quick method of finding out the season of year in which a 
bird may be found in the Park; explanation of these letter 
symbols is given in a heading. 

With no way of knowing how great might be the demand 
for such a handbook as this, it was decided to try to raise 
money among the Academy's membership for the publication 
of a limited edition and to sell the book, at a price within the 
reach of all, so as to enable the Department of Ornithology 
to maintain a revolving fund for further editions if a demand 
were forthcoming. 

With the sincere thanks of this department to those friends 
of the Academy whose generosity made this plan a reality, this 
Handbook of the Birds of Golden Gate Park is now made 
available for the use of those who may be interested in the 




Gavia immer (Brunnich). — 28'36 in. 

Large-bodied, neck long, slender. In 
winter, above dark (brownish'to slaty 
gray), back with slight scaly effect; be- 
low white. In summer, head and neck 
purplish black, green- glossed; throat and 
side of neck with bars of white streaks; 
back patterned with white spots; wing 
white-specked. Bill long, pointed, dark 
above. Diver. 


Gavia stellata (Pontoppidan). — 24'27 in. 

In winter, top of head and hind neck 
blackish, white streaked; rest of upper 
parts grayish to brownish dus^y. white- 
specked; below white. In summer, side of 
head and neck plain gray, throat with 
rich brown patch running down fore neck. 
Bill long, pointed, dark above. Diver. 

Aechmophorus occidentalis (Lawrence) — 24-29 in. 

In winter, above brownish slate, dark- 
est on top of head and hind neck; below 
satiny white, including side of both neck 
and head; wings with white patch, show- 
ing well in flight. In summer, top of head 
and narrow line down hind neck black. 
Heck very Jong and slender. Bill long, 
sharp, slender. Diver. 

— 6 — 


In summer easy to identify; in winter absence of white on upper 
parts restricts field characters to large size of bird, great length of 
neck, general form, plumage dark above and white below, and habit 
of diving frequently. In spite of rather small wings has rapid flight, 
and its quickness of action when diving is remarkable for so large 
a bird. Has a piercing, wailing call and also one that sounds like a 
long, wild sort of laugh, both calls startling when heard in wild 
country. Nests on northern lakes. 

Winter. Occasional visitor. Sprec\els and Worth la\es. 

Smaller than last and slighter in form, but larger bodied than 
any of the grebes. Easy to identify in summer plumage by rich 
brown patch on throat and fore neck. Back lighter in shade than 
that of preceding species and in winter whitcspecked. Nests in the 
far north, but often noted on San Francisco Bay in winter. Has 
been seen on Park lakes in beginning of spring, then showing partly 
summer plumage. 

Winter. Occasional visitor. Sprec\els and Horth la\es. 

The length and slimness of neck, all satiny white except for a 
narrow strip on the hind part, are of great assistance in identifying 
this grebe. A very quick diver, able, as are all the divers, to swim 
a long distance under water. If alarmed by an observer, but not 
quic\ly startled, it slowly sinks out of sight, without leaving a ripple 
on the water, and swims away. In summer feathers of head are 
longer than in winter, giving a sort of puffy effect, but not forming 
a crest. Nests in northeastern California and northward. 

Winter. Occasional visitor. La\es containing fish. 

— 7 — 



Colymbus holboelli (Reinhardt). — 18-20 in. 

In winter, blackish gray above, brown- 
ish on wings; throat and side of head 
white; nec\, except on back, brownish 
gray; rest of lower parts white, slightly 
spotted with gray. Wing with white patch 

showing when opened. In summer, darker 
above and neck reddish-brown. Bill shorter 
and heavier than preceding, dusky above, 
but mostly yellowish. Diver. 


Colymbus nigricollis calif ornicus (Heermann). — 13 in. 

In winter, upper part of head, back of 
neck and rest of upper parts dusky; below 
white except on fore neck and at extreme 
rear; wings with white patch. In summer, 
head and neck black, tuft of silky, yel- 
lowish brown feathers each side of head; 
below white except sides brown. Bill 
black, flattish, slender, much shorter than 


Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus). — 13'/2 in. 

Above dus\y brown; chin whitish, fore 
neck h'ght brownish; below silvery white, 
mottled on sides with dusky gray, more 
grayish rearward. In summer, color of 
upper parts blacker; chin and throat blac\. 
Bill short, heavy, in winter dark above, 
yellow below; in summer whitish, crossed 
by blac\ band. Diver. 


8 — 


Much smaller than Western Grebe, with relatively shorter neck, 
and body of much stouter build. In early spring commences to as' 
sume summer plumage and very easy to identify by color markings. 
In winter may be distinguished from Western Grebe by gray of 
neck as well as by relative size. Much larger than the following 
species and with much thicker neck. Nests north of United States, 
wintering along this coast to Monterey Bay. 

Winter. Rare visitor. Stow or Sprec\els la\es. 

Smallest of our grebes and difficult to distinguish in winter from 
the Horned Grebe, from which it then differs principally in having 
the bill slighter and flatter at base, in having more gray on neck and 
side of head, and neck more slender. (Horned Grebe has not yet 
been recorded in Park.) Common in winter on sloughs and ponds 
of Bay region and breeds in this state. Remarkably quick diver. If 
shot at, usually is beneath water before shot reaches it, unless close 
at hand. 

Winter. Common. La\es. 

Small but stockier in build than the Eared Grebe and easily dis' 
tinguished by its brown color in winter and by the black on chin 
and throat in summer, at any season by its short, rather stubby bill. 
The very young birds are dark, with four whitish stripes above; 
streaked on head and neck with white. Builds floating nest among 
tules, covering eggs with decaying vegetation when it leaves nest. 
Has a number of different calls and notes, some of them quite weird. 

Resident. Common. All la\es. 



Pelecanus occidentals calif ornicus Ridgway. — 4]/i ft. 

In winter, head and nec\ white, more 
or less tinged with yellow; upper parts 
light brownish gray, more. or less streaked 
with darker brown and silvery white; be 
low grayish brown. In summer, with 
chestnut tuft on nape, head more yellow 
ish; hind neck chestnut to dark brown; 
pouch reddish. Bill huge, with great pouch 
below it. 


Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos Linnaeus. — 23 in. 

Male, head and nec\ metallic green, 
narrow white collar; back brownish to 
light grayish; rump and upper tail coverts 
black, central feathers of latter auved 
upward; breast deep chestnut, rest below 
mostly gray; tail white, with black above 
and below. Female, mottled brown and 
buffy, darkest above. Speculum iridescent 
blue in both sexes. Bill long, wide, olive 
yellow; feet orange. 

Speculum is a term used for the band of white or colored, usually iridescent, 
feathers in center of wing of many ducks. There is no other word to be used in 
place of it. 

BALDPATE (Widgeon) 
Mareca americana (Gmelin). — 20 in. 

Male, jorehead and crown white, mc 
tallic green area bac\ oj eye; rest of head 
and neck speckled; back dark pinkish gray, 
finely penciled with dusky and white; 
wing dark, with white patch and green 
speculum; breast and fian\ pin\ish brown; 
below white except black under tail. Fc 
male, head and neck speckled; except for 
white belly mostly mottled brownish; 
speculum black, whitcbordered. Bill blu- 
ish, black'tipped. 



Its large size and huge bill make a pelican extremely easy to 
identify and this species is readily distinguished from the White 
Pelican by its color, except, possibly when quite young. The imma' 
ture of the Brown Pelican is whitish below and brownish on neck. 
Flies by giving a few flaps of the huge wings and then sailing for 
a space. Often sails over water and plunges after fish, frequently 
going clear under. Common along shore and at times inside the bay, 
but seldom comes into park. Nests on southern islands off Califor' 
nia coast. 

Fall or winter. Casual. Chain of la\es. 

Best known large, fresh'water duck, as our commonest barnyard 
duck is a domesticated form of this species, many individuals being 
difficult to distinguish by plumage alone from the wild Mallard. 
Tamest duck in Park, many coming at call when offered bread, etc. 
Feeds in shallow places by tipping head and neck into water, tail 
pointing skyward. In midsummer male loses bright plumage and re 
sembles female. Ducklings are a common sight in spring and early 
summer, but many are destroyed by enemies, such as cats, dogs, etc. 
Usually seen in pairs. 

Resident. Abundant. All la\es. 

The male is very easy to identify by its field marks but the female 
is less so, though the white on wing, black speculum, more brownish 
back and reddish brown on flanks fairly well separate it from females 
of other species of ducks found in Park; also head and bill are 
shorter than with either Pintail or Mallard. Male has a very dis' 
tinctive whistled call of three syllables, somewhat resembling call of 
Olive-sided Flycatcher. Several females are apt to be seen to one 

Winter. Common. All la\es. 



Tvjettion carolinensis (Gmelin). — 13'/2 in. 

Head and nec\ mostly chestnut; metal' 
lie green band from eye to blac\ tuft on 
hind neck; back, flank and lower neck 
finely waved dusky and whitish; breast 
bufty, dar\'Spotted; white cross bar at 
shoulder; speculum bright green; belly 
whitish. Female without bright color ex- 
cept green speculum; above dusky, mot- 
tled; below whitish. Bill black. 

SHOVELLER (Spoonbill) 
Spatula clypeata (Linnaeus). — 19 in. 

Head and nec\ blackish, green-glossed; 
middle back dusky, flanged with white; 
breast white; rest of lower parts dark, 
chestnut except black and white under 
tail; upper wing light blue; speculum me- 
tallic green. Tail dark green, white-edged. 
Female, mottled brown and dusky; wing 
as of male but duller. Bill long, black, 
broad'ended; feet orange. 

PINTAIL (Sprig) 
Dafda acuta tzitzihoa (Vieillot). — 28 in. 

Head, throat, upper /ore-necJ( dar\ 
brown; hind neck blac\, bordered by 
white stripe; back brownish -gr a y and 
white, finely penciled; lower neck and 
lower parts white, finely penciled on sides 
and rear; tail long, pointed, mostly black; 
wing drab, upper part deep black and 
white-streaked; speculum bronzy, white 
edged. Female dusky and light, mottled. 
Bill long, narrow, black. 



One of our smallest ducks and most widely distributed. Prefers 
fresh water to salt and small to larger bodies of water, feeding in 
shallow places by "tipping," much like the Mallard. In flight one 
of the swiftest ducks and the quickest in turning, twisting, rising 
perpendicularly from water, etc. The male is easily recognized by 
small size and prominent field marks; green speculum, with black 
above and below and buffy bar in front. Call of male is a flutclike 
whistle; also keeps up constant peeping sound while feeding. 

Winter. Occasional. Stow and Middle \a\es. 

Its many contrasting colors and size and shape of wide-tipped bill, 
make the male easy to recognize, yet perhaps confusable with Mai' 
lard at long range. The female may be identified by bill and by 
light blue on upper wing, combined with the green, white bordered 
speculum, like that of male but duller. Feeds in shallow water, 
dabbling in mud or swimming low and dabbling along surface, 
skimming the water for small plant or animal life. Formerly abundant 
in Park, but now rare. 

Winter. Occasional. Middle and Stow la\es. 

Fairly large fresh-water duck, with nec\ and bill long and slender. 
Male easily identified by shape and markings, especially by the long, 
slender, central pair of tail feathers, from which name originates. 
The female is something like a Mallard, but smaller, much more 
slender, longer necked and with speculum dull brown, only a little 
lighter than rest of wing. The long neck enables this duck to feed 
without having to tilt up behind so much as do other ducks that 
feed in shallow water. 

Winter. Common. Middle and Stow la\es. 



Marila valisineria (Wilson). — 22 in. 

Head and ncc\ chestnut, darkest on top 
of head and around bill; broad, brownish' 
blacJ^ band encircling base of neck; back 
and wing coverts white, with fine pencil' 
ing, rump and tail brownish black; be- 
low white. Female, light brown on head, 
neck and breast; back darker; below white, 
mottled with brownish. Bill black, long, 

LESSER SCAUP (Bluebill) 
Marila afiinis (Eyton). — 15 in. 

Head, neck, breast and forcback black. 
head with greenish and purplish gloss; 
back white, with narrow zigzag dusky 
barring; speculum white; below white, 
dusky at base of tail. Female, head, neck, 
breast and upper parts reddish brown, 
darkest on back and rump; white at base 
of bill; belly white. Bill bluish'gray, 
broad, nail black. 

Marila collaris (Donovan). — 15 in. 

Resembles preceding, but back black; 
white curving up from below in front of 
wing; bill dark gray, with bluish'white 
band behind black tip, and narrow, whit' 
ish band around base; white on chin; 
chestnut collar at base of neck; speculum 
light mouse-gray. Female like preceding 
except lighter on throat and side of head, 
white eycring and gray speculum. 

— 14 


A large, heavy-bodied sea duck whose name comes from re 
semblance of back of male to coarse canvas. One of characteristics 
is slope of forehead down to the rather flattened bill. A deep water 
duck, obtaining food by diving, living largely on wild celery root 
and pondweeds when in fresh water, and held to be the best table 
duck. Usually wary, keeping away from shore lines, but tame in 
Park where fed. Sleeps much in daytime. Large flock often winters 
on Spreckels Lake. 

Midwinter. Often numerous. Mostly Sprec\els La\e. 

Another stocky sea duck, smaller than preceding, of same group 
but easily distinguished by iridescent blac\ head of male, with 
greenish or purplish gloss, according to angle of reflection, and broad 
bill and white speculum of both sexes. A great diver and bottom 
feeder, liking open, deep water, but coming into Park lakes in win- 
ter. A few nest here. The Greater Scaup also here to some extent, 
but difficult to distinguish from Lesser, except by its head showing 
only greenish reflection. Darker color of head and neck, and white 
around base of bill, are good field marks for female Scaups as com- 
pared with Canvasback. 

Resident. Uncommon in summer. Stow and J^orth la\es. 

Unless at close range easily mistaken at first glance for Lesser 
Scaup, but critical observation shows the light band across bill, white 
chin, and white cross-band before wing of the male; the small bill, 
white eye-ring and gray speculum identify the female. The chestnut 
collar is not so easily seen unless close by, and the Lesser Scaup 
often has a slight ring. In midwinter a small band usually may be 
found on North Lake, its members keeping much to themselves. 

Winter. Uncommon. Chain of la\es. 

— 15 — 


BUFFLE-HEAD (Butter-ball) 
Charitonetta albeola (Linaeus). — 13J/2 in. 

Head, throat and upper neck metallic 
black except broad, white patch expand' 
ing from below eye upward and rearward 
to nape; back black; wing with two long 
white patches; below white, running up 
into collar around lower neck. Female 
with head, upper neck and back dark 
brown; white patch back of eye and one 
on wing. Bill dark, small, bluntly pointed. 

WHITE-WINGED SCOTER (White-winged Coot) 

Oidemia deglandi Bonaparte. — 21 in. 

Blac\ except small white spot behind 
eye and white on middle of wing. Female 
dusky brown, usually with two dull whit- 
ish spots below level of eye, fore and rear, 
and white speculum. Bill swollen over 
nostril; of male blac\ and orange, of fe- 
male dusky. Sea Duck. 

Oidemia perspicillata (Linnaeus). — 20 in. 

White spot on forehead and white tri' 
angle on hind neck, otherwise all black, 
more or less brownish below. Female, 
dark brown, head darkest; throat and two 
spots below eye level whitish; white patch 
on hind neck. Bill of male reddish and 
whitish, black spot on side; of female 
grayish and blackish. Sea Duck. 



Smallest of the Sea Ducks and the male very striking, with 
strong contrasts of snow-white and deep black and with sheen of 
green and purple reflection, in certain lights, upon head and neck. 
The female is less easily identified, but with its small size, small, 
pointed bill, white spot on side of head and absence of bright color, 
can hardly be confused with any other Park duck. A small band 
usually winters at the southwest corner of Stow Lake, by the feed- 
ing station there. Is an expert diver. 

Winter. "Hot numerous. Several la\es. 

Winters in rather shallow water on San Francisco Bay, where it 
constantly dives for small shell-fish, but seldom comes into Park, 
though one or two may wander in occasionally for a short stay. 
Large size, dark color and white patch on wing, thick neck and 
peculiar bill render identification simple. In winter common along 
piers on east side of bay. 

Winter. Hare. Sprec\els and 7>{orth la\es. 

The pure white patches in bold relief on head of adult male, 
coupled with large size, are unmistakable field marks at fairly long 
range and at short range the peculiarly shaped bill with orange-red 
and black coloring is additional evidence of species. The female, 
however, cannot be surely identified at any great distance, the shape 
of bill and presence or absence of white on wing being difficult to 
make out under unfavorable conditions. Feeds along shore in surf 
mostly, but in winter numerous on bay in daytime, often among 
White-winged Scoters. 

Winter. Casual. Chain of la\es. 

— 17 — 


Erismatura jamaicensis (Gmelin). — 14'/2 in- 

Male in spring has top of head and nape 
blac\, chin narrowly, chee\ wholly white; 
neck, side and upper parts rich chestnut, 
wing and tail dusky; below brownish sil- 
very. Winter male like female, except 
chee\ white. Female, above dark brown 
waved with reddish brown; light stripe 
under eye; below silvery. Tail stiff, up' 
lifted. Bill short, broad. 


COOT (Mud-hen) 
Fulica americana Gmelin. — 14J/-J in. 

Head and neck blac\; rest of body dar){ 
slate, except brownish on rump, slight 
white edging to some wing feathers, and 
white area beneath tail. Iris red. Bill 
whitish, chicken-like, with frontal shield, 
dark spot near tip. Feet lobed, greenish. 

18 — 


A small but very stocky, short'necked, spinytailed duck, widely 
distributed, mostly on fresh water, but never in large flocks. Good 
diver, often diving when alarmed, but slow to get started on wing, 
splattering with its feet along the surface for some time and, when 
under way, usually flying low. Passes large part of day asleep on 
water, floating about with head under wing and spiny tail pointing 
upward, showing some white beneath. Toward spring male changes to 
bright chestnut on back. A few nest in tules in Park. 

Resident. Common. All la\es. 

Can be confused with no other Park bird except, possibly, the 
Florida Gallinule which, however, is smaller, has more white show- 
ing in flight on wing and has bill mostly red. The Coot is common 
on every lake in Park, its head bobbing back and forth as it swims 
around or walks on bank. Dives a great deal for green weeds or pond 
roots and likes to do a lot of chattering. Builds floating nests in tules, 
often in plain sight from lake bank. When newly hatched, bill is 
orange red and down is blackish, but has fine orangccolored feathers 
showing through. 

Resident. Common, more numerous in winter. All la\es. 

— 19 



Lohipes lobatus (Linnaeus). — l x /i in. 

In spring, head and upper parts brown' 
ish black; some light brown streaking on 
back and wing; whitish wing-bar; upper 
breast and side of neck rich brown; 
winter, below white, which replaces 
brown of breast and neck; forehead and 
black, slender. 



Larus glaucescens Naumann. — 25 in. 

Mantle (area on back and wing-cov 
erts) and primaries (the long, stiff wing 
feathers) pearl gray, latter white-tipped; 
red eye-ring; rest of plumage pure white. 
Bill stout, yellow, orange spot near tip 
of lower mandible; feet flesh color. Young, 
1st year entirely brownish gray, mottled; 
in next three years gradually acquires 
adult plumage. 



A very dainty looking bird, with small head and slender neck. 
Floats lightly, with body setting high on water. Swims about, dabbing 
to right and left, often turning around in circles, as it gathers from 
the surface its minute animal food. Usually occurs in small flocks, 
drifting into the Park from the ocean shore, during migration to and 
from the far north. As with all Shore Birds, the female is larger 
than the male. 

The easiest to identify of the larger gulls, as plumage is without 
blac\. Young of first year lighter brown than young of other gulls, 
and in succeeding years of immaturity primaries and tail are dusky 
but not blac\; second year shows a little pearl gray on back, much 
more in next year and attains adult plumage when four years old. 
Breeds along coast from Washington north, wintering south, not 
going inland to any great extent. 

Winter. Occasional. All \a\es. 



Larus occidentalis Audubon. — 25 in. 

Mantle dark slaty gray, primaries black, 
white-tipped, outer with white spot; rest 
of plumage pure white. Bill stout, yellow, 
red spot near tip of lower mandible; feet 
pale flesh color. Like other gulls, young 
are grayish-brown, mottled, bill and tail 
dark; gradually reaching adult state, by 
fourth season. 

Larus calif ornicus Lawrence. — 22 in. 

Mantle pearl gray; primaries black, 
white-tipped, two outer with white "fin- 
ger marks"; plumage otherwise white. In 
winter head and neck of all these gulls 
(except the Western) are clouded, mot- 
tled or lightly streaked with gray or dusky. 
Bill more slender, black spot on upper, 
red spot on lower mandible; feet green- 
ish gray to yellowish. 

Larus delawarensis Ord. — 19 in. 

Mantle light gray, lighter than preced- 
ing species; bill more slender relatively 
and with black ring near tip, latter be- 
ing more yellowish in winter than rear 
part of bill; otherwise with practically 
same markings as the California Gull, in- 
cluding red eye-ring. 

-22 — 


Back much dar\er than that of preceding species; primaries more 
extensively black than with other large gulls on this coast, as seen 
from below; head of adult remains unspotted white through winter. 
Breeds along this coast, especially on Farallon Islands from whence 
it forages in San Francisco Bay even in nesting time. Very de- 
structive to eggs and young of other sea birds. Does not go far 

Resident. Common. All la\es. 

Smaller than preceding and back light pearl gray; bill with orange 
spot behind blac\ on lower mandible. These field marks demand 
careful scrutiny and reasonably moderate range to make identifica- 
tion positive. In winter feet are greenish gray. Breeds on interior 
lakes. Forages inland to some extent and often seen following a 
plow in fields near coast and feasting on angleworms, mole crickets, 
mice or other dainties that may be turned up. 

Winter. Occasional. All la\es. 

Though smaller than the California may easily be mistaken for 
that species unless close enough to observer for a good view of the 
bill, when the distinct blac\ ring near the end of the bill, with the 
very light gray mantle, assist in positive determination. Also much 
like the still smaller species, the Short-billed Gull, which, however, 
does not come inland to any extent, and is without the black ring 
on bill. 

Winter. Common. Chain of la\es. 

— 23 — 




Ardea herodias hyperonca Oberholser. — 46 in. 

Head crested, white centrally, black-bor- 
dered; chin white, neck mostly drab-gray; 
upper parts slaty gray, longer wing feath- 
ers darker; below streaked black and 
white; thigh and edge of wing light chest' 
nut; lower neck and back with many 
plume-like feathers. Legs very long. Bill 
long, sharp'pointed. 


Butorides virescens anthonyi (Mearns).- 

.7 in. 

Crown black, green- glossed, of rather 
long feathers sometimes raised into crest; 
shoulder, most of neck and side of head 
chestnut; throat and line below eye white; 

back and wing bluish to grayish-green; 
fore-neck and breast streaked, rest of un- 
derpays grayish. Bill long, sharp; legs 
greenish yellow. 

Nycticorax nycticorax naevius (Boddaert.) — 17 in. 

Top of head greenish black; a long 
narrow white plume extending backward; 
back black, with greenish gloss, in strong 
contrast to light, bluish gray of wing 
and tail; neck and lower parts pale gray 
to white. Iris red. Bill black; legs yel- 
low. Immature birds more brownish, 
strea\ed, brown and whitish. 

— 24 — 


Very tall when standing erect, being the longest'legged native 
bird in Park, and when looking for mice, gophers, etc., in open 
fields is readily noticed. Crooks neck in flying but extends legs 
straight out behind, unless only flying a very short way; flies with 
slow motion of wings. Likes to stand in shallow water and spear 
small fish or frogs coming within range of its long neck and bill. Ut- 
ters harsh squawks as it rises when startled. Probably nests outside of 

Resident. Uncommon. El\ paddoc\. 

A small heron, with legs rather short, usually keeping out of sight 
except when flying from place to place. Feeds along edges of ponds, 
slow streams, etc., or perches under cover of trees or bushes along 
banks, squatting down among reeds if a person approaches. Utters 
clucking notes when startled, or gives hoarse squawks. Nests in leafy 
tops of stream-side trees. 

Summer. Rare. Reeds, or limb over water. 

Heavily built for a heron, with bill thick in proportion to length. 
Has a squatty appearance and ordinarily keeps neck shortened down. 
Feeds mostly at night on same food as other herons; roosts in day- 
time in thick trees, but sometimes seen feeding in fields or among 
reeds. Roosts and nests in small colonies, but feeds singly. 

Resident. Rare. Tules or trees around la\es. 



Botaurus lentiginosus (Montagu). — 24'34 in. 

Top of head plain dar\ brown, feathers 
of head and hind neck long and loose; 
upper parti dark to yellowish brown, 
waved or mottled with dusky; below 
streaked brown and light bufty; dark stripe 
on side of neck, throat white. Bill long, 

Ixobrychus exilis hesperis Dickey and van Rossem. — 13 in. 

Top of head, back, rump and tail biac^, 
with greenish sheen; side of head and 
most of neck chestnut; under" parts streaked 
white and light tan; wing chestnut, pale 

bufty and dusky. Female with head and 
back brown. Bill long, slender, mostly 
yellowish; legs greenish yellow. 

Rallus virginianus Linnaeus. — 9 in. 

Above, olivcbrown, streamed with black. 
Bide of head grayish, upper wing deep 
cinnamon, rest of wing dark brown; be 
low, cinnamon, except flank dusky and 
whitcbarred. Bill long, slender, slightly 
down'curved, yellowish brown, as are feet. 



A very easy bird to identify, by its shape and yellowish -brown 
color, when once seen. If flushed from rushes, or tules, slowness 
in getting under way allows time for good observation but, when 
still, blends with dead grasses or reeds and is difficult to detect; 
when on alert remains motionless, with bill pointing skyward, and 
resembles an old stalk or stake, fading from sight if one's eye shifts 
for a second. Mating call of male is a booming sound, uttered at 
intervals, giving rise to name of "Pumper" or "Stake driver." 

Occasional. Rare. Chain of la\es. 

So small and shy as seldom to be seen, often sneaking off under 
cover rather than flying, when surprised. Lives in marshy places, 
seldom coming out into open in daytime except occasionally at edge 
of weeds or rushes on bank of pond or slow stream. Is like a small 
edition of American Bittern except for more contrasting coloration. 
Feeds mostly at night. Utters short "qua" when startled; mating 
call a sort of "coo" several times repeated. 

Summer. Rare. In tules, T^orth La\e. 

Except for length of bill, somewhat like a miniature domestic hen 
in shape, of general brownish color, dark on back. Feeds mostly at 
night, keeping among tules, etc., in daytime, but sometimes seen 
out on mud at edge of cover. Shy, but rather noisy, with a series of 
what sounds something like grunts of a little pig, and with a mo' 
notonously repeated call of cut, cut, cutta, cutta, cutta! Though with 
short wing is a migrant, widely distributed in summer. 

Summer. Rare. La\e margins. 



Porzana Carolina (Linnaeus). — 8J/2 in. 

Face, throat and middle of crown black; 
above olive brown mixed with black, back 
narrowly flecked with white; flank dark 
brownish, heavily barred with whitish; 
breast and sides of head and neck bluish 
gray; belly whitish. Bill greenish yellow, 
deep but narrow; legs greenish yellow. 


Gallinula chloropus cachinnans Bangs. — 1 3 in. 

Mostly dar\ slate-gray, darkest on head; 
brownish on back, rump and wing; often 
whitish on belly; flank, under tail coverts 
and edge of wing showing some white. 
Bill chicken-like, but developed into fiat 
plate on forehead, bright red except yel- 
lowish tip. Toes long, without web, green- 
ish yellow. 

Gallinago delicata (Ord). — 11 in. 

In general, mottled, streaked, barred and 
specked black, white, brownish and buffy; 
crown black, with central light buffy 
stripe; throat and side of head whitish, 
dark stripe through eye; back blackish, 
distinctly light-streaked; belly whitish, 
flank much barred; tail black and chest' 
nut. Bill long, slender, straight; feet 



Except for short bill somewhat like preceding in shape and actions, 
but white flec\ing on bac\, and very olivaceous tint to upper parts 
distinguish the Sora on rear view, and the lead color of breast and 
side of neck, with black of face extending down chin and throat 
(black lacking in immature) make identity positive from front or side. 
Not so noisy as Virginia Rail and notes more pleasing. Smaller than 
the Virginia but with larger feet, better adapted for walking on float' 
ing vegetation. 

Summer. Rare. La\e margins. 

When swimming, easily confused with Coot unless close enough 
to show its bright red bill and forehead plate; does not, however, ap' 
pear as much in the open, mostly staying at water's edge or walking 
over floating vegetation, where its long toes are of great assistance. If 
enough startled to take wing usually flutters along with feet hanging 
down and soon drops into cover. Has a number of notes, much like 
some of those of a barnyard hen. Newly hatched young lac\ orange 
red coloring of young Coot. 

Summer. Rare. La\e margins. 

Difficult to see when still, as its broken colors melt into surround' 
ings, but, if seen to move, the long, straight bill and color pattern of 
upper parts easily identify it. When flushed flies off in zigzag course 
for some yards before straightening out or mounting upward, at same 
time repeating its sharp alarm note. Feeds by probing in soft mud for 
worms and other animal life, leaving small surface holes that denote 
its presence in a locality. Nests in mountain meadows, where its court' 
ing flights and accompanying humming sounds are most interesting to 

Winter. Very rare. Soft, wet meadow or la\e margin. 
— 29 — 


Geothlypis trichas sinuosa Grinnell. — 4^4 in. 

Above greenish'olive, washed with 
brown, especially in winter; black mask 
across forehead and through cheek, nar- 
rowly bordered behind by whitish; throat 
and breast bright yellow, whitish on belly; 
flank brownish; tail olive green. Female 
without black and color subdued. Both 
sexes browner in winter. Bill, slender, 


Agelaius phoeniceus mailliardorum van Rossem. — 8 in. 

Male jet blac\ all over except scarlet 
patch, or epaulet, at bend of wing. In 
fall and early winter has feathers of back 
edged with rusty; immature very rusty. 
Female, blackish brown, streaked with 
light buffy to whitish, less so in spring; 
throat pink'tinged; epaulet lacking. Bill 
and feet black. 



Our only resident warbler. Lives in tules, thick weeds or bushes on 
lake margins, keeping much under cover seeking small insects, but 
often appears if observer makes a squeaking sound. The black mask of 
the male at once identifies species, but the female may easily be con' 
fused with female of other warblers, such as Yellow, Lutescent or 
Pileolated. Has a pleasant, three syllabled song that is sharp and live' 
ly, and also "scolds," a good deal like the Tule Wren. 

Resident. Common. Worth and Middle la\es. 

The scarlet epaulet of adult male is an unmistakable field mark, 
and, within range, streaking of female distinguishes it from Brewer 
Blackbird. Epaulet sometimes abnormally yellow. In spring the musi' 
cal O^a-Icce of the male is a cheery note to hear, and the bird hov 
ering, with epaulets fluffed out, is a pleasing sight. Roosts in tules; 
nests in grass clumps, rushes and often grain fields. In winter forages 
far afield but returns to tules at night. 

Resident. Scarce. K[orih and Middle la\es. 




TURKEY VULTURE (Turkey Buward) 
Cathartes aura septentrionalis Wied. — 29 in. 

Head red, practically bare of feathers; 
plumage entirely brownish black, slightly 
grayish on underside of wing. Bill white; 
feet flesh color. 

Accipiter velox (Wilson). — 1044 in. 

Adult, above dark bluish gray, top of 
head blackish; below reddish brown, white 
barred; tail long, gray, with three dusky 
cross bands, square ended; wing short, 
rounded. Immature, brownish above, 
striped, rather than barred, below. Bill 
short, strongly hooked, dark at tip; legs 
longish, pale yellow. 


Accipiter coo peri ( Bonaparte ).- 

14-20 in. 

Practically same as Sharp-shinned Hawk 
except that end of tail is rounded. With 
birds of prey female is the larger, so that 
a large female Sharp-shinned may over- 

lap a small male Cooper Hawk in size, 
when species can only be distinguished 
by shape of end of tail. 

32 — 


Usually seen only while soaring overhead, probably too high up for 
red of head to be discernable, but body appears totally blac\ against 
sky; wings mostly black also, but with grayish area, in right light, on 
underside of flight feathers; primaries noticeably spread at ends while 
soaring, but tail generally closed. Soars in great circles, seldom flap' 
ping wings. Lives on carrion, for which it hunts with wonderfully 
keen eyesight. Seen over Park in migrations and sometimes swings 
inward from sea beach. 

Summer. Rare. Soaring. 

Small, but very swift in flight and destructive to small bird life. 
Likes to perch within foliage of trees, from which ambush it can dart 
at small birds within range, or even at birds heavier than itself yet 
which it can carry to perch and devour. Extremely audacious when 
hungry; known to have seized quail so near hunter that latter secured 
hawk and victim at one shot. Adult quite handsome but immature 
brownish and streaked and most often seen. Sometimes seen sailing 
overhead; difficult to see when motionless in tree. 

Winter. Rare. Mostly among trees. 

Similar to preceding, but on larger scale and destructive to larger 
birds, chickens, etc. Both sail in circles, this species to rather greater 
extent, the short wings being used rapidly to give an impulse with 
which it can sail for some distance at a time. Prefers to perch in 
higher trees than does preceding. 

Resident. Uncommon. Among high trees. 

— 33 


Buteo borealis calurus Cassin. — 19-25 in. 

Above dark brown; head streaked and 
back mottled with fawn; color below var* 
ies with individual from almost white to 
dark brown, usually more or less striped 
or barred; adult with tail bright reddish 
broum; tail of immature gray. Bill strong, 
heavily hooked; feet powerful. 

Buteo lineatus elegans Cassin. — 18-22 in. 

Above dark brown, more or less streaked 
with whitish and rusty; shoulder chestnut, 
wing elsewhere dusky, barred with rows 
of white spots; below reddish brown, 
lightly barred on belly with white; tail 
dusky above, gray below, crossed by four 
or five white bands. Bill dusky, with yel- 
low cere; feet yellow. 


Falco sparverius phalaena (Lesson). 

Crown reddish brown, bordered by 
slaty blue; two vertical black stripes on 
side of head; back like crown but black- 
barred; tail also reddish brown, broad 
black band near end, white'tipped, two 
outer feathers barred black and white; 
wing slaty blue; throat white, rest below 
tawny to whitish, black'spotted. Female 
with back, wing and tail reddish brown, 
barred with dusky; below white, streaked 
with tawny. 

34 — 


Large as Turkey Vulture and usually seen soaring, but shows diS' 
tinct pattern on underside of wing when within reasonable range; 
also soars with primaries spread, but while the Turkey Vulture inclines 
tips forward the Red-tail inclines them rearward and spreads tail. 
Sometimes perches conspicuously in tops of tall trees. Varies greatly 
in color, with age and individually; immatures are heavily streaked 
below, with thighs barred. Mostly a beneficial bird, preferring ground 
squirrels and rabbits to birds, as food; seldom attacks poultry. Has a 
piercing scream. 

Resident. Common, but not numerous. Open spaces. 

A stout, medium sized Hawk, wild and difficult to approach, that 
lives mostly among trees in willow bottoms. Has short wings and flies 
rather clumsily, alternating series of rapid wing strokes with spells of 
sailing. Barring of wing and tail very noticeable in flight. Food con- 
sists largely of frogs and mice, but preys on birds to some extent. 
The California Academy of Sciences Collection contains two imma- 
ture birds taken here by the Park hunter, in October and January, 

Fall and winter. Very rare. West end of Par\. 

Really a small falcon, with long, narrow- pointed wings. Male very 
handsome in bright, adult plumage, and graceful in movement. Usu- 
ally perches on post, wire or any point of vantage, but also hovers 
over open land, posing for a moment and darting to ground to pounce 
upon prey. Very beneficial, feeding on mice and insects, especially on 
Jerusalem crickets; has a shrill but cheerful two-syllabled cry, fre- 
quently given both in flight and when still. 

Resident. Common. Open spaces. 

— 35 



COOPER HAWK— See page 32 


Columba fasciata fasciata Say. — 14 in. 

Head and lower parts pinkish gray, head primaries dusky; tail crossed near center 

darkest, belly shading to white; back by dus\y band; narrow white band across 

brownish slaty; rump, wing and tail pur- hind nec\ with iridescent greenish below, 

plish gray, two latter often brown-tinged, Bill orange, black-tipped; feet yellow. 

BARN OWL (Monkey-faced Owl) 
Tyto alba pratincola (Bonaparte). — 17 in 

Bac\ tawny, finely to coarsely lined and 
spotted with dusky and white, giving ap- 
pearance of grayish wash; below light 
tawny to white; specked with dusky; large 
white disc around each eye, darkening 
toward center, enclosed by darker plum- 
age narrowing to thin line on throat. Legs 
long and feathered; bill light colored. 



Colaptes cafer collaris Vigors . — 13 in. 

Head and neck tawny to gray; bac\ and 
shorter wing feathers brown, narrowly 
barred with blac\; rump white; below 
light fawn to whitish, black'spotted;bJdcf( 
crescent across breast; wing and tail black 
above, salmon'red below. Male with red 
streak on side of head. Bill long, strong, 
narrow-pointed. Woodpecker family. 

— 36 — 


In sue, shape and with cooing notes very much like common barn' 
yard pigeon and with same noisy flapping of wings in flight, resting 
of head on breast when perching unalarmed and other characteristic 
actions. Readily seen when perched on top of tall trees, but easily 
missed if on alert when feeding in oaks. Lives mostly on acorns, ber' 
ries, wild fruits, some grass seeds, grain, etc. The dark band across 
tail most noticeable during flight. 

Transient. Very rare. Trees. 

An owl living in holes or dense growths in trees in the wilds, yet 
often leaving these to abide with man and to occupy his barns, lofts 
or any dark, accessible places near by. Like all owls, it disgorges pel' 
lets of indigestible parts of its food, in which the large numbers of 
bones of gophers, mice and other rodents prove its usefulness. Easy 
to recognize by light color and "mon\eyface". Has a long, rasping 
note and also utters a series of clicking sounds. Has nested in Park 


Conspicuous on account of size and markings and also because of 
its noisiness. At times it is a vigorous drummer on hard, dead wood, 
and has several loud and quite characteristic calls. Has a way of bob- 
bing head after alighting on tree or limb. Markings show well in flight, 
especially from beneath. Fond of ants and grasshoppers and hops 
clumsily on ground after them. Also eats wood'boring insects, ber' 
ries, etc. Nests in holes in decayed wood. Troublesome around build- 
ings where it bores through board walls. 

Resident. Common in Par\ and city. Trees or ground. 




'h{uttallornis borealis majorinus Bangs & Penard. — 7 J/2 in- 

Brownish gray above, darkest on head, 
wing and tail; white showing on side of 
rump; lower parts like back but lighter, 
with yellowish-white on chin and throat 
and centrally rearward from breast. No 
wing' bars. Bill heavy, yellowish beneath; 
feet black. 

Myiochanes richardsonii richardsonii (Swainson). — 6 in. 

Brownish gray above, darkest on crown, 
wings and tail; often two slight wing bars 
of buffy white; below much like back, 
but lighter on chin and throat and running 
into yellowish'white on belly. Very simi- 
lar to Olivcsided Flycatcher, but smaller. 
Bill flatter and weaker. 


Cyanocitta stelleri carbonacea Grinnell. — 13 in. 

Head, neck, back, and throat down to 
upper breast, brownish blac\; rump and 
rest of plumage rich dar\ blue, wing and 
upper side of tail with narrow black bars 

and slightly tinged with purplish. Head 
with very distinct crest. Bill longish, 
strong, black; feet black. 



Largest flycatcher found in Park, but lacks distinctive markings. 
Prefers to perch high on trees, preferably coniferous, from which it 
darts after insects passing near. In spring has a loud, clear, three 
toned call with second syllable accented and highest in pitch, some 
what like one call of the California Quail and even more like that 
of the Baldpate Duck. Has also a monotonous, oft repeated "pfl-pfl* 1 to 
be heard at times, but in fall is silent. Distinguished from next species 
by larger size, heavier bill and white sides of rump. 

Summer. Rare. High trees. 

A slim flycatcher that sits very erect, usually on some small dead 
branch well up in a tree, from which it can readily dart after passing 
insects. When not in motion its somber, unbroken color makes it diffi' 
cult to distinguish by sight, but its monotonously repeated call, or 
song, of pecwee, and accompanying movement of head and jerk of 
tail, serve to attract attention. Its vantage point is usually on the 
outer edge of the chosen tree and its sallies after prey readily betray 
its presence during feeding hours. 

Summer. Rare. Higher trees. 

Rather large bird easily identified by crest, deep blue coloration 
and rather long, rounded tail. Claws well adapted for holding acorns, 
nuts, etc., on stump or limb for splitting open with its bill. Bold but 
wary and rapidly escapes from sight by short jumps upward from 
limb to limb toward top of trees; moves on ground by hopping. It is 
noisy, with harsh calls and screeches, yet has a low, sweet song that 
is seldom heard. Full of curiosity and attracted by unusual sounds. 
Destructive to eggs and young of other birds and hence mostly killed 
off in park. 

Formerly resident. }{ow rare. Trees and bushes. 

— 39 



Aphelocoma calif ornica calif ornica (Vigors). — 12 in. 

Without crest. Top of head, neck, wings 
and upper side of tail bright blue, rich' 
est on head; white stripe over eye; back 
grayish brown; throat streamed white and 
dusky, blue of neck running down sides 
of breast, rest of under parts light gray 
to whitish. Tail longer than last. Bill 
longish, strong, black; feet black. 


Corvus brachyrhynchos hesperis Ridgway. — 18 in. 

Entirely blac\, with slight purplish gloss. 
Bill and feet heavy, strong. 

COAST BUSH-TIT— See page 70 

Sitta canadensis Linnaeus. — A]/i in. 

Head blac\, except for white stripe over 
eye back to nape; chin and sides of 
throat whitish; bac\ and central tail 
feathers bluish gray; primaries and rest 
of tail feathers dusky, latter white near 
tips; below light reddish brown. Female 
paler, no black on head. Bill black, naf 

40 — 


Slightly smaller and slimmer than last, with nearly same character' 
istics; voice rather higher, harsher and more vociferous, but has some 
low, more musical notes occasionally used with young or in com' 
pany. Screeches vigorously at invaders of its territory; bobs head a 
good deal; flies by alternately giving a few strokes with its short wings 
and then sailing a little way. Both jays hide food not needed at mo- 
ment, generally in ground. Jays hop, they do not walk. Also dc 
structive to other birds, hence killed off in park about as fast as any 
wander in. 

Formerly resident. T^ow rare. Trees, preferring oa\s. 

Only one large blac\ bird can be mistaken for the crow, and that 
is the raven, of which none has been recorded from the Park. Crows 
are common at places along the shores of San Francisco Bay and 
some wander to Lake Merced and ocean shore, probably only stop' 
ping in Park on their way. Apt to perch on tops of trees and easily 
seen and identified. Often also seen on ground, searching for large 
insects. Destructive to other birds' eggs and young. 

Transient. Rare. High trees and ground. 

Rather difficult to see. Has strong, well'curved claws for clinging 
to bark of coniferous tree trunks and larger branches, where it travels 
around, head up or head down, looking for insects. Mostly works 
high up in trees, its oft-repeated short note, bringing to mind a small 
toy trumpet, often being the only sign of its presence and hard to 
locate, the sound having a deceptive carrying quality. When seen, its 
stocky shape, short tail and its actions identify it as a nuthatch, and 
the white eycstripe denotes its species. 
Occasional. Rare. Conifers. 

— 41 



Certhia familiaris zelotes Osgood. — 5'/2 in. 

Above rusty brown, mottled witb dusky 
and white except on rump, head and neck 
darkest; white stripe over eye; whitish to 
tawny spots and bars on wing; under 
parts white to grayish; tail long, rounded, 
the feathers sharp'pointed. Bill long, 
slender, down-curved. 

Thryomanes bewic\ii spilurus (Vigors). — 5J/2 in. 

Above plain brown, except tail feath- 
ers barred with dusky and wing faintly 
so; conspicuous white strea\ over eye; be- 
low pale gray, lighest on throat; tail long- 
ish, rounded, tipped on under side with 
grayish white. Bill slender, slightly down- 

Troglodytes aedon par\mannii Audubon. — 5 in. 

Above brown; very faint light stripe 
over eye; back slightly waved with dusky, 
wing and tail more so; below light brown- 
ish gray, flank more brownish and finely 
waved; tail rounded, without white. Bill 
slender, nearly straight; feet light brown. 

— 42 — 


The streaked and mottled brown back of this slender little bird 
makes it difficult to detect against the bark of trees that it frequents, 
unless seen in motion, close at hand or flying down to the base of a 
tree and working upward, as is its custom. Has long claws, for cling' 
ing to bark, and tail-feathers adapted for bracing itself. Always wor\s 
upward and usually on spiral course, looking for insects on bark. 
Most easily located by high-pitched call note, something like that of 
Golden-crowned Kinglet. 

Winter. Rare. Forest trees. 

A busy and friendly little, bird, though much given to what sounds 
like scolding; a good singer with a pleasing song, varied yet always 
characteristic. As with all wrens, when in motion other than flight 
the tail is usually uptilted. May be distinguished from the Western 
House Wren by larger siz,e, white stripe over eye and whitish tipping 
to its long tail, which is broader at end than at base. Found in brush, 
vines, around buildings, etc., besides conifers and live oaks. Nests in 
holes, boxes, crevices, any good hiding place. 

Resident. Common. Trees, brush, vines, etc. 

Easily identified as of the Wren family and much like Vigors Wren, 
but smaller, lighter colored, more grayish brown on back and without 
distinct eye stripe; tail more narrowly ending, shorter and with no 
light tipping. Very friendly; constant and sweet singer from arrival in 
spring to late into summer. Frequents trees and buildings in Park more 
than brush or vines. Scolding note is rougher and deeper than that of 
Vigors Wren and its song less varied. Nests in holes. 

Summer. Uncommon. Trees and buildings. 

— 43 — 



Planesticus migratorius propinquus (Ridgway). — 10 in. 

Head black, back gray to brownish- 
gray; wing like back, primaries dusky; be 
low mostly rich reddish brown, changing 
to white at base of tail; chin and throat 
white, latter streaked with dusky; eyelids 
and spot before eye white; tail longish, 
dusky, often slightly white-tipped. Female 
duller. Bill yellow. Thrush family. 



Ixoreus naevius naevius (Gmelin). — 9 in. 

Above slatecolor; conspicuous orange 
brown stripe over eye rearward; wing 
marked with orangebrown spots and bars; 
below orange-brown, white on belly, flank 
gray- waved; blac\ crescent across breast; 
tail slightly light-tipped. Female much 
paler and marks subdued. Bill dusky, feet 


Regulus satrapa olivaceus Baird. — 3^4 in - 

Crown orange, bordered by yellow (ex- 
cept in rear) followed by blac\ and then 
white parallel bordering, latter just over 
eye; upper parts, wing and tail gray, 
with decided green wash; one or two 
light wing-bars showing; below ashy whit- 
ish. Bill black. Female with yellow on 
crown, but no orange. 



Good-sized, sociable bird, found in many parks and gardens in city 
during winter time. Nests to some extent in Golden Gate Park; floc\s 
there in winter. Given to feeding on worms in grassy places, running 
(not hopping) a few steps, stopping to look and listen and darting 
at worm when located. Fond of toyon and other berries. Often gath- 
ers in tops of trees, where the reddish breasts attract attention, toward 
night settling down with much chatter to roost. First record in Park, 
1915. Nest of coarse material and mud-lined. A loud and cheery singer. 

T^ow resident. More numerous in winter. Trees and lawns. 

A little smaller than yet much like a Robin in form and action but 
with more striking markings and different habits. Found mostly un- 
der or near heavy cover, instead of on open ground or tops of trees. 
Its field marks make it easy to distinguish from the robin, yet their 
variation makes it often difficult to see against brokenly lighted back- 
ground. Food much like that of robin — fruit, berries and ground-liv- 
ing insects, but of sorts found under cover. Has single note song, like 
combination of whistle and human voice. 

Winter Rare some years, common others. 

Under heavy trees or bushes. 

A very small, active bird, with slender, short bill, usually found 
feeding upon insects on small twigs and leaves, mostly among outer 
branches of higher conifers or broad-leaved trees. Has habit of con' 
stantly raising wings, slightly fluttering, as it were, being more active 
in this way than the Ruby-crowned Kinglet. When quiet not easy to 
see. Song much like that of Sierra Creeper, weak and high-pitched, 
but is a series of notes instead of one long one. Most apt to be found 
toward spring, during migration to higher mountains. 

Winter. Uncommon. High trees. 

45 — 


Corthylio calendula cineraceus (Grinnell). — 4 in. 

Upper parts gray, with greenish tinge 
rearward, rump olive-green; scarlet crown' 
patch, usually mare or less concealed; 
white eye'ring; white wing-bars; below 
soiled whitish. Female without crown- 
patch. Rather similar to Golden-crowned 
Kinglet except as regards head markings. 


Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot. — 7 in. 

Above grayish-brown to dar\ish fawn; 
crested; velvety black band across forehead 
around through eye, often with white 
edging; tail shading to black, tipped with 
bright yellow; chin blac\; below fawn, 
yellow rearward; tail and shorter flight 
feathers often with corahred, wax'li\e tips. 
Bill short, basally wide, blackish; feet 


Vireo huttoni huttoni Cassin.- 

-4]/ 2 in. 

Grayish to greenish olive above; whit- 
ish eye-ring, interrupted over eye; two 
whitish wing-bars; below, paler and more 
yellowish. Has large eye, eye-ring making 
it look even larger. Tail rather short; bill 
with slight hook characteristic of vireos; 
feet weak, dusky. 

— 46 — 


Very similar to last, but slightly larger and more grayish. Ruby- 
crown of male apt to be concealed when bird is quiet, but when ex- 
cited it is brilliantly exposed. More numerous than Golden-crown, 
tamer, feeds all over trees and bushes and more commonly seen in 
its diligent search for small insects. Has several characteristic short 
notes and "scolds" a good deal, but has a pleasing song, often heard 
in mountains during nesting season and sometimes in Park toward 
spring, that is remarkably loud for size of bird. 

Winter. Common. Trees and bushes. 

Smooth, soft, grayish-brown plumage, longish wings and short tail, 
with head conspicuously crested, make this attractive bird easy to 
identify. An erratic wanderer, it usually is found in small flocks that 
feed on pepper berries, mistletoe and small fruits, with some insects, 
often clinging upside-down to branches, like a chickadee. When full 
of food and undisturbed stays quietly in tree, with but little chatter, 
but on taking flight the flock goes off in close formation, giving the 
bird's characteristic and only note in a sort of chorus. 

Winter. Uncommon. High trees. 

The greenest of the California vireos, most apt to be found in oa\ 
trees, principally in live oa\s. Somewhat resembles the Ruby-crowned 
Kinglet, but differs in being more stocky, with heavier and some- 
what hooked bill; has no bright color on crown and is much less ac- 
tive in movement, though with a similar, but less frequent, flutter of 
wings. Also its several notes are very different, its song being of two 
syllables and monotonously repeated. Makes nest of gray moss, very 
difficult to find, cup-shaped and usually built in live oak. 

Resident. Uncommon. Mostly oa\ trees. 



Vermivora celata lutescens (Ridgway). — 4J/2 in. 

Above olive-green, yellowish'green on 
rump; crown'patch orange, but often hid- 
den; no wing bars; below greenish yellow, 
slightly streaked. Bill slender, dusky. 
Wood Warbler family. 



Dendroica townsendi (J. K. Townsend). — 4J/2 in. 

Crown, chee\ and throat blac\; strea\ 
over eye and on side of throat bright yel- 
low; back dull yellow, black- streaked, with 
greenish effect; two white wing'bars; wing 
and tail dusky, latter white on inner 
webs; yellow on breast and sides, latter 
black-streaked; belly white. Female 
plainer. Bill slender, dark. Wood Warb- 
ler family. 

Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson) — 6]/z in. 

Adult male with head crimson; wing, 
tail and middle of bac\ black; elsewhere 
yellow; yellow wing-bars. Female and im- 
mature, greenish yellow to dusky above, 
with no black; yellow below. Bill and 
feet gray. 

— 48 — 


The earliest to appear of the spring warblers, its presence is most 
apt to be noted by its song rather than by view of the bird. The 
green back and yellow underparts are not in contrast to spring foliage 
and it is motion of the bird that usually attracts an observer's eye. 
May be mistaken for the Golden Pileolated Warbler, if the black cap 
of latter is not plainly in view. The song of the latter, however, is 
much shriller, that of Lutescent being only a slightly descending trill. 

Summer. Occasional. Small trees. 

Contrast in marking makes this a striking bird when once noted, 
the black and yellow pattern on head, throat and breast of male at' 
tracting an observer's eye more readily than does the plainer plumage 
of some of the smaller birds just mentioned. Cannot well be confused 
with any other of the Park birds. Often noted in conifers bordering 
the Shakespeare Garden. 

Winter. Common, not numerous. Conifers. 

The male of this species also is easy to identify, though sometimes 
by the very uninformed, mistaken for an oriole. Its plumage is bril' 
liantly patterned in black and yellow, to which is added the eye'lure 
of crimson. The female and immature are much less easy to distinguish 
and do somewhat resemble the female Bullock Oriole. Has a char' 
acteristic call, once known always remembered, sounding like prittlf 
eet, constantly repeated and readily noted. 

Spring and fall migrant. Very rare. Trees. 

— 49 



Carpodacus purpureus californicus Baird. — 5^4 in. 

Top of head, rump, throat and breast 
purplish red, somewhat streaked; back, 
wing and tail dark grayish brown, more or 
less washed with red; back and wing some 
what streaked; belly white, unstreaked. 
Female and young grayish brown, streaked 
with darker olivcbrown, and without red. 
Bill thick, strong, conical. 

CALIFORNIA LINNET (Western House Finch) 
Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis (Say). — 5 in. 

Adult male with head (except crown and 
cheek), rump, throat and breast bright 
crimson; back, wing and tail brown; 
belly whitish, brown- streaked. Female 
and immature, without red; brown above, 
dirty whitish below, streaked with brown. 
Bill shorter, proportionately thicker than 
that of Purple Finch. 

Spinus pinus pinus (Wilson). — 4]/i in. 

Strea\ed all over brown and whitish, 
darkest above; bright yellow showing on 
middle of wing and on basal part of tail, 
which has end deeply notched. Sexes 
about alike, but female duller. Bill brown, 
sharp'pointed; feet dark. 

— 50 — 


Rather difficult for beginners to distinguish from the California 
Linnet, but red color of adult male is darker than that of Linnet and 
covers entire head. Also tail of this species is more deeply notched 
than that of Linnet and bill is heavier and rather larger; the female 
is more streaked and with olivaceous dusky, with chee\ dar\er brown. 
Call notes and song differ considerably. Song of Purple Finch is of 
a very pleasing rolling character; that of Linnet is more a trifling 

Winter. Common. High trees. 

Somewhat smaller than California Purple Finch, adult male lighter 
red and female lighter brown, both sexes with narrower streaking; 
tail almost square ended. Song quite different from and, though 
cheery in character, far less musical than that of Purple Finch; often 
sings or chatters during flight. Linnet prefers lower country and likes 
to be around buildings, in gardens, etc., becoming relatively tame in 
such surroundings, nesting on porches, window sills, vines — almost 
anywhere. Both finches live largely on tree buds, fruit and other vegc 
table matter. 

Resident. Common. J^ot particular. 

In size and many actions resembles goldfinches, but easily distin' 
guished by entire streaking of head and body and by yellow on wings 
and tail (more noticeable in flight). Mostly seen flocking in tree tops, 
spreading over lawns when dandelions are ripe, or circling around in 
flocks. Utters constant twittering call, and flock taking wing gives 
characteristic buzzing note. Feeds on buds, catkins, dandelions, etc. 

Resident. Common. High trees or ground. 

51 — 


Loxia curvirostra minor (Brehm). — 6 in. 

Adult male, dull gray, heavily overlaid 
with dull red to orangcred (young male 
with coloring more mixed) ; wing and tail 
blackish. Female greenish'gray to yellow 
ish. Bill dark, upper and lower parts 
much curved, and crossed near tip. 


J unco oreganus pinosus Loomis. — 5'/2 in. 

Male with slatyblac\ hood in sharp 
contrast to reddish brown of bac\ and 
wings and to white of lower breast and 
belly; side and flank pinkish buff; primaries 
and tail dusky, latter with white on two 
outer tail feathers. Female grayer and 
duller. Bill pinkish white. 



Lophortyx calif ornica calif ornica (Shaw). — 10 in. 

Male with short, blacJ^, forward' curved 
plume on head. Forehead light grayish, 
top of head dark brown; throat blac\, 
white 'bordered; neck speckled on back and 
side; back, wing and tail brownish; breast 
bluish gray; belly fawn, centrally chest' 
nut, feathers black edged, with scaly ef- 
fect. Female plainer, throat light drab, 
below whitish. Bill short, thick, strong. 

52 — 


A very stocky bird, with distinguishing feature of having sharp- 
pointed, curved mandibles crossed near end, enabling bird to nip 
seed out of pine cones, etc. Generally seen in flocks on conifers, its 
stockiness, peculiar coloration, peculiar bill, and action making it easy 
to identify. 

Winter. Rare. Coniferous trees. 

Can hardly be confused with any other genus, when adult, but 
juvenile plumage is without blac\ and is streamed. Three subspecies 
of Junco might be found in the Park in winter, but field identifica- 
tion of individuals is so difficult that the Point Pinos is the only one 
here considered. Most likely to be found under or near coniferous 
trees, but feeds largely on ground near good cover, the white on outer 
tail feathers showing vividly on bird taking flight. A few pair breed 
in Park. 

Resident. T^ot numerous. Under trees. 

Most popular, one of the handsomest birds in California and easily 
recognized. Regularly fed each evening at certain Park barns. Has 
several calls besides an alarm note; the gathering signal is usually em- 
phasized on the second of its three notes, yet often on the third; in 
spring male perches near nest and gives at intervals a single call; 
alarm note is short and often rapidly repeated from two to six times 
in rapid succession if danger threatens. Nests on ground and young 
are able to run and hide as soon as dry. 

Resident. Abundant. Throughout ?ar\. 

— 53 



Oxyechus vociferus vociferus (Linnaeus). — 10^ in. 

Above brown; some white on forehead 
and back of eye; chin, collar and lower 
parts white, with two black bands across 
breast; wing black, with white bar; rump 
and base of tail cinnamon, latter black 
with some white showing. Wing long, 
pointed; bill short; leg grayish brown. 
Plover family. 


Zenaidura macroura marginella (Woodhouse). — 12 in. 

Mostly brownish; top of head bluish 
gray, forehead fawn; neck iridescent, with 
black spot on side, chin whitish; above 
grayish brown; some small black spots on 
wing; below light brown, pink'tinged on 
breast. Closed tail long, pointed, outer 
feathers short, wide basically when open, 
showing white tipping. Bill bluish gray, 
jeet pin\. 


Speotyto cunicularia hypogaea (Bonaparte). — 10 in. 

Above brown, spotted with white or buff; 
below white, strongly barred or spotted 
with brown; warm brown predominating 
in general appearance; white line over 
eye. Leg long, scantily feathered. 

— 54 — 


Often seen on lawns, where it seeks worms and insects among the 
grass. A rapid runner and very noisy, tame yet wary, taking flight 
at close approach of an observer and uttering shrill but plaintive 
shrieks of \ill'de'e'e'r! ^ill'dcccr.' many times in succession, the first 
syllable being very short. When its nest is approached it gets much 
excited and more noisy than ever, but soon quiets down and the fc 
male tries to draw observer away by feigning a broken wing, and do- 
ing other tricks. Nests on ground in slight depression. 

Resident. Common. Grasslands. 

One of our daintiest birds, whose gentle, sweet, yet mournful coo- 
ing is so commonly heard in spring and summer in the San Francisco 
Bay Region, is only too rare in the Park. Its connection with the 
pigeon family is easily recognizable and its long, pointed tail and 
small size readily identify its genus and species. Has mincing sort of 
walk, never hops, and its flight is swift and wonderfully graceful. 
All of its actions are of gentle nature, and its food is daintily gath- 
ered. When alighting, tail plainly shows white on outer feathers. 

Except winter. Rare. Open ground. 

A small owl that nests and largely lives in squirrel or other holes in 
ground. Often to be seen in broad daylight perched on mound at en- 
trance to burrow or hunting grasshoppers, crickets, etc., in grass. On 
a mound or post stands very erect on its relatively long legs and has 
habit of bobbing or bowing, but frequently noted in entrance to bur- 
row, drawing down head as observer approaches. Has several queer- 
sounding calls and chuckles. Has been recorded at the Presidio and 
vicinity of Lake Merced. 

Resident. Doubtful if now in Par\. Open lands. 

55 — 



Sayornis sayus (Bonaparte). — 7 in. 

General plumage grayish brown; top of longest wing feathers blackish. Bill and 
head dark; under parts lighter than back, feet black. Flycatcher family, 
changing to tawny rearward. Tail and 

Otocoris alpestris actio, Oberholser. — 7 in. 

Above light brown, more or less pink- and on chee\; throat bright yellow; b\ac\ 

ish on fore parts, streaked with darker; shield across breast. Female and winter 

forehead yellow, with blac\ bar above male duller and less marked. Bill and 

forming horri'li\e tuft over eye; blac\ feet black. 
area extending across bill, through eye 

Chamaea fasciata fasciata (Gambel). — 6J/^ in. 

Brown to grayish brown throughout; 
darkest on head and neck; above more 
grayish; below lighter, more cinnamon' 
brown, throat and breast slightly streaked 
with darker; iris white; tail longer than 
body, rounded, central feathers distinctly 
longest, always up'tilted. Bill and feet 

— 56 


Readily distinguished from the Black Phoebe by its grayish'brown 
color and want of definite markings other than blackish primaries and 
tail feathers. More slender than that species, with longer wing and 
rather stronger flight. Sometimes hovers a little, looking for insects on 
ground. Prefers more open places than Black Phoebe, but of rather 
similar habits except for building nest of cobwebs and light material 
instead of mud. Call note sweeter and rather plaintive. 

Winter. Rare. Perches on buildings, posts, etc. 

A bird of open land that does not hop but wal\s, swinging its tail 
as it steps. Name results from hornlike tuft of feathers on head of 
male, much less prominent in female. Contrast of black on head, breast 
and outer tail feathers makes identity easy. Usually in flocks. While 
quiet and on alert crouches among lumps, stones or grass tufts and 
difficult to find until flushed, when flock wheels around and soon 
lights again. Has characteristic sharp call, faint but audible at some 
distance. Has weak, pleasant song, in spring often given while on 

Winter. Rare visitant. Grass lands. 

The wren'tit resembles both wrens and tits in general way, but with 
certain characteristics not found in either, hence placed in family by 
itself. Almost entirely confined to California. Attracts attention by 
its peculiar, high-pitched, staccato whistle, same note being repeated 
several times slowly and then rapidly running into a trill, with little 
or no variation in pitch. Has also a low, sort of purring note oft re- 
peated as it moves about bushes, mostly down near ground. Tail 
usually kept closely folded but pointing upward. 

Resident. Rare. Recorded near Dutch windmill. 



T^annus hiemalis pacijicus (Baird). — 4 in. 

Rich brown, brighter than either House 
or Vigors Wren and smaller. Brown all 
over, but rather grayish on belly; wing, 
flank and belly finely waved or barred 
with dusky, tail very short, more dis' 
tinctly barred. Bill slender, short; feet 

Sialia mexicana occidentalis J. K. Townsend. — 7 in. 

Male, above deep rich blue except chest- 
nut on middle of back; throat blue; be 
low chestnut, changing to gray on belly. 
Female, above dull grayish blue, wing 
and tail bluest, brownish wash on back; 
breast and sides pale reddish brown. 
Young like female, but strea\ed with 
whitish. Bill and feet black. 

Anthus ruhescens (Tunstall). — 6]/x in. 

Above dark, somewhat grayish brown, 
light line over eye; below light brown or 
buffy, narrowly streaked with dusky on 
breast and side; outer tail feathers white, 
conspicuous in flight. Bill slender, dark; 
feet brown. Wagtail family. 



Smallest and richest brown as well as darkest of our wrens. A shy 
bird, frequenting deep-shadowed places. Would pass unnoticed except 
for its great activity. Tail very short and usually pointing upward a. 
sharp angle with back. In spring has sharp, high-pitched song, remi- 
niscent of squeaking of a belt on very small high-speed pulley. Pre- 
fers to be near water, among roots of big trees or under dense shrub- 

Winter. Very rare visitor. l<[ear Dutch windmill. 

Very attractive bird, hardly to be confused with any other species 
if sue and field marks are carefully considered. Feeds in open spaces 
but perches high, as a rule. Often seen hovering over fields in search 
of food and diving gracefully at crickets, grasshoppers, etc. At times 
eats berries, especially mistletoe. Has a characteristic call. Gathers in 
flocks in winter, usually associated with Audubon Warblers. 

Winter. Rare. Trees near open spaces. 

A slender, inconspicuous inhabitant of open lands, bare or cov- 
ered with short grass; when quiet difficult to detect against broken 
background of clods, stones or grass tufts. Wal^s with dainty step, 
moving head forward and backward with each foot motion and mov- 
ing tail up and down but not in unison with step. Usually feeds in 
scattered flock. When alarmed the whole flock rises from ground, 
with white on tail flashing, wheels in erratic flight with pleasant 
whistled note, to settle down again not far away. 

Winter. Common. Open fields. 

— 59 — 



Sturnella neglecta Audubon. — 9 in. 

Above brown, strea\ed and barred with 
blac\ and bufty; light stripe centrally over 
crown and one over eye; below mostly 
bright yellow, lighter rearward, with 
some dark spotting on side, blac\ crescent 
across breast; tail short, outer feathers 
mostly white. Female duller. Bill strong, 
dusky above; feet light brown. 

Passer domesticus (Linnaeus.) — 6 in. 

Head gray, reddish brown area behind 
eye;bac\ and wing brown, black-streaked; 
throat and breast blac\, rest of lower 
parts dirty whitish; two wide white wing' 
bars. Female without black below. Bill 
thick, black; feet brown. 



Euphagus cyanocephalus minusculus Grinnell. — 9 in. 

Male glossy blac\ all over, with pur- 
plish sheen; iris white. Female greenish 
dus\y above, brownish gray below; iris 

brown; tail long, slightly rounded. Bill 
sharp'pointed, black; feet black. 

60 — 


A stocky bird with short wing and short, rounded tail that spreads 
fanwise and shows white margin on taking flight or alighting. Also a 
dweller in open fields and meadows, the male strikingly colored. A 
most cheery songster that sings the year around, its strong and musi' 
cal song characteristic, but varying somewhat with the individual. 
Lives largely on injurious insects, but in winter, when insects are 
scarce, apt to pull up a little sprouting grain and often unjustly con' 

Resident. Rare. Grass'lands. 

Easily recognized by its stocky proportions, clumsylooking hops 
as it feeds on ground and its noisy quarrelsomeness. Also it is the 
only sparrow in Park heavily mar\ed with reddish brown and black. 
An introduced bird, now a pest, inimical to other bird life and very 
prolific, building bulky nests, around buildings by preference, and 
raising several large broods each season. 

Resident. Very common. Wherever people congregate. 

The only bird in the Park that might possibly be mistaken for this 
species would be the male Red-winged Blackbird, and then only when 
the red wing-mark is not visible. Female of latter species is streamed, 
whereas the Brewer female is unmar\ed. May be noted walking about 
lawns, in search of insects, or flying out to rushes in middle of lake. 
Generally nests in trees, but sometimes in tules in lakes. After nesting 
season likes to roost in flocks in high trees or to perch on telegraph 
wires. Has characteristic, shrill call. 

Resident. Common. Grass-lands or chain of la\es. 

— 61 — 


Pipilo maculatus fdcifer McGregor.— 7 1/ 2 in. 

Head, upper parts, throat and breast 
black; Wj red; conspicuous white spots on 
wing, especially in flight; below white 
centrally, side bright cinnamon. Female 
with head brownish-black. Immature dark 
brown above, light brown below, dusky- 
streaked. Tail black, end with large white 
area. Bill black; feet black. 

Passerella iliaca annectens Ridgway. — 6^4 in. 

Above deep brown, tail more reddish 
than back; breast and belly white, dis- 
tinctly mar\ed with dark, reddish-brown 
spots like up-pointed arrowheads, with 
these more bunched on breast. Bill heavy, 
conical; feet brown. 


Spizella passerina arizonae Coues. — 5 in. 

Above mostly brown, top of head bright 
reddish'brown, back streaked with black- 
ish, rump ashy gray, whitish stripe over 

eye, black line through it; below light 
ashy gray. Young streaked below. Bill 
dusky above; feet dark brown. 



Easily identified by its contrasting markings, its long, round-ended 
tail and habit of scratching, with its well adapted feet and long claws, 
among dead leaves for seeds and insects. Never found far from bushes 
or some sort of heavy cover with good scratching ground beneath, 
and often noted in flight from bush to bush. Male likes to perch near 
top of bush and constantly repeat a two'syllabled, sort of trilled song, 
the first syllable being short and faint and the second long drawn out. 
Has also a rather mewing note. Never flocks. 

Resident. Common. In brush. 

Somewhat like the Hermit Thrush, but darker, more heavily built, 
with distinctly heavy bill and much browner spots on breast. Also a 
great scratcher under brush, digging among fallen leaves with a sort of 
"rocking horse" motion and making litter fly behind. In northern 
summer home has a sweet, rollicking song, but in winter only short, 
sharp call notes. Often numerous in Park, at other times scarce, de' 
pending on food conditions. Other subspecies, difficult to determine, 
sometimes also present. 

Winter. Common. Brush. 

A small, slender, inconspicuous bird very common in the San Fran- 
cisco Bay region but scarce in Park. Feeds largely on ground under 
trees and, with feet not well adapted for scratching, moves about a great 
deal in search of food, soon leaving one spot and flying to another 
near by. When alarmed flies to lower branches of trees. Besides a 
short, sharp call note has a shrill song, incessantly repeated, like the 
buzzy trill of an insect of the locust family. 

Summer. T^ot numerous. Open spaces near trees. 




Zonotrichia leucophrys gamhelii (Nuttall). — 6|4 in- 

Adult with wide white stripe over crown 
and one over eye joining it on nape; 
blac\ stripe each side of crown and one 
from eye rearward; above gray, heavily 
brown' streaked on back; two white wing' 
bars; below very light gray. Immature 
with black and white replaced by dark 
and light brown, respectively. Bill and 
feet light brown. 


Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli Ridgway. — 6J/2 in. 

Very similar to Gambel Sparrow, except 
white stripes narrower, bill light yellow, 
edge of wing yellowish, bird more brown' 

ish and of darker shade generally. Col' 
oring of immature also similar to preced' 
ing, but darker. 


Zonotrichia coronata (Pallas). — 6^4 in. 

Head of adult with broad golden-yel' 
low crown stripe widely bordered with 
blac\; upper parts dull, grayish brown, 
back streaked with black; wing with two 
white'spotted bars. Immature with head 
dull brown finely streaked with dusky, 
slightly yellowish on forehead. Bill dark 
above, yellowish at base; feet light brown. 
Sexes alike. 

— 64 — 


A friendly bird that nests north of the United States but spends 
the winters with us, arriving in this region about the end of Septenv 
ber and always flocking, alone or with the Nuttall Sparrow. Not 
easily distinguished from latter by appearance only, as it differs chiefly 
in having wider white stripes on head and lighter general coloration 
than the Nuttall. Both have a similar faint call note (tseep!), but the 
songs are decidedly characteristic when learned, that of the Gambel 
Sparrow being the more elaborate. 

Winter. T^ot abundant. Open spaces near brush. 

Similar to above species, but white head stripes less prominent, bill 
more yellowish and general shade of plumage darker. Also feeds on 
ground, scratching considerably. Flocks in colonies that remain dis' 
tinct. Many of these birds are resident, and so tame as to feed on 
bread crumbs, etc., at the feet of people who offer them food. Con' 
stant singer, in summer singing occasionally in the night, its song 
mostly consisting of a moderately long sibilant note, a second of 
same length a fifth higher, followed by several repetitions of a short 
intermediate note. 

Resident. Many colonies. All suitable places. 

In habits and appearance rather similar to Nuttall Sparrow, but 
head of adult with wide crown'Stripe of golden yellow. Immature 
without definite stripes on head. Somewhat larger than preceding 
species. Song consists of three descending notes with intervals of a 
third, sounding like "Oh, dear me!", heard most frequently during 
wet weather and hence bird often popularly called the "rain-bird". 
Nests in far north and winters here, arriving in early autumn, some 
few remaining in state until late in May. Abundant in many places 
in this region. 

Winter. T^ot numerous. Ground near bushes. 

— 65 — 



Calypte anna (Lesson). — 3|/2 in. 

Adult male with crown and gorget me- 
tallic rose red (black frtfm rear view); 
back, rump, and middle tail feathers mc 
tallic green; below grayish green, wing 
and outer tail feathers dusky. Female 
without gorget; green above, including 
middle tail feathers; below gray, sides 
green' washed. Bill black, long, very 


Selasphorus alleni Henshaw. — 7>% in. 

Adult male with gorget crimson; top of 
head and back metallic green, tail and 
lower parts reddish brown, white on 
breast. Female bronzy green above; tail 
rufous and green, tipped with black and 
white; throat dusky spotted; partly whit' 
ish below with reddish brown sides. Bill 
black, long, very slender. 


Megaceryle alcyon caurina Grinnell. — 13 in. 

Above gray-blue, head with loosely /eath- 
ered crest, white spot in front of eye; 
white collar around neck; below white 
except gray-blue band across breast. Fe- 
male same, but with chestnut band below 
blue one, and some chestnut on flank. 
Tail and primaries black, with some white 
barring. Bill long, heavy, straight, mostly 

— 66 — 


Largest and only resident hummingbird in San Francisco Bay region. 
Hummingbirds have a long, very slender bill, with a very extensible 
tongue for probing into flowers after honey; have habit of hovering 
on buzzing wings and are the only birds that can fly backward. In 
spring male towers high in air and dives with extreme swiftness, show 
ing off before female, who builds nest and takes entire care of young. 
Has several slight clicking notes and squeaky song. Often perches on 
twig. Eats honey, sap and small insects. 

Resident. Common. Throughout Par\. 

Smallest bird in Park and first summer visitor to arrive, reaching 
here by second week in February. Easily distinguished from Anna by 
smaller size, more coppery red of gorget and reddish-brown of tail 
and underparts. Has same general habits as Anna, but there are 
recognizable differences in notes, curve described while "towering" 
and sound made by buzzing wings, all characteristic of species. May 
be mistaken for Rufous Hummingbird during early spring, as positive 
field identification of the two species is mostly impossible. Hummers 
build tiny cup-shape nests of plant down, with moss and lichens out' 

February to September. Common. Throughout Par\. 

Easily identified by relative size of head and bill, peculiar color 
and markings, rattling call when flying, shortness of leg when seen 
on perch and its action in securing food. Selects stub or dead limb, 
with free flight-way over water, for perch and dives with splash after 
small fish, returning to perch to swallow victim whole. Frequently 
changes to another perch, giving its harsh, rattling call as it flies, al' 
ternating a few slow with a few rapid wing-beats. Sometimes hovers 
and dives from air. May be noted at any season, but probably not 
nesting in Park. 

Resident. Uncommon. La\es. 




Dryobates pubescens turati (Malherbe). 

Blac\ and white, except narrow scar- 
let fringe on nape of male. White stripe 
over eye around nape and one below eye 
back to nape; middle of back white; wing 
with rows of white spots; below white; 
outer tail feathers white, slightly black- 
barred. Bill and feet black. 

-6 in. 

Sphyrapicus varius daggetti Grinnell. — 9 in. 

Head, neck an d breast crimson; back and 
wing black, whitcspotted, rump white; 
diagonal white bar across folded wing; 
belly light yellowish; tail black, except 
white down center. Bill dark gray; feet 
gray. Sexes alike. 


Satornis nigricans (Swainson). — 6'/2 in. 

Like all flycatchers, with slight, raisable 
crest. Head, back, neck and throat black, 
this coming down to and forming an in> 
verted V against white lower parts. Wing 
and tail dull black, whitish on edges of 
wing feathers and outer web of outer 
tail feathers. Bill flat, basally wide, 
feet black. Flycatcher family. 

— 68 


Woodpeckers climb up and bac\ down tree trunks in their search 
for insect food, tapping vigorously with strong, chiseMike bills and 
bracing themselves with the short, stiff, pointed feathers of tail. The 
Willow is the smallest native woodpecker. Has characteristic cry. 
Drums out signals to its mate by rapid tapping with bill on dry, 
resonant wood, drumming most vigorously when a person disturbs it 
from its nesting cavity in a decayed limb. 

Resident. Uncommon. Willows. 

Easily identified by its woodpecker form and habits, and the ex* 
tent of crimson on head, throat and breast. Drills horizontal rows of 
small holes in bark of trees to cambium layer, to drink the sap and 
eat insects that collect in them, sometimes girdling and killing a tree. 
These holes leave scars for many years, even in rapidly growing trees. 
Does not make much sound while tapping the holes and its drum' 
ming signals are more irregular in character than those of Willow 

Winter. Uncommon. Chain of la\es. 

Bill typically flattened, with bristles at base. Selects advantageous 
perch from which to dart after passing insects, usually returning to 
same perch, preferably well up from ground. Each bird, or pair in 
nesting time, seems to have its own hunting area, around two or three 
favored perches; likes to be near buildings. Builds mud nest under 
eaves, bridges, or in any protected place. Has small song and mc 
notonous, two'note call, oft repeated. Its black hood and white breast 
make identification easy. 

Resident. Common. Many places. 

— 69 — 


Empidonax difficilis difficilis Baird. — 5^ in. 

Brownish'olive above; yellowish, brown' 
tinged, below; inconspicuous except for 
light eycring and two light wing bars. 
Bill flat, dark above; feet brownish dusky. 

Penihestes rufescens barlowi (Grinnell).- 

Head and throat dark brown, except for 
white patch on chee\, back dark chestnut; 
underparts light grayish; tail and wing 
gray. Bill blackish, short, stout; feet lead' 

-AVa in. 

Psaltriparus minimus minimus (J. K. Townsend). — 4J4 in. 

Very small-bodied; plain gray all over, 
with more or less brownish tinge, dark' 
est on head, lightest below; plumage 
rather fluffy; tail longer than body, naf 
row. Bill short, black; feet black. Tit' 
mouse family. 

— 70 


So unobtrusive and somberly colored as to escape notice were 
it not for its activity in search of food and occasional jerking of tail 
when perched, a habit common to all small flycatchers. Keeps mostly 
in shadowy places, flying out after winged insects coming within 
range. Has an oft repeated song, of three parts, and a call note, both 
characteristic and easily recognized. Nest delicately built of green 
moss, cobwebs, etc., and the cream'Colored, brown-spotted eggs are 
beautiful when fresh. 

Summer. Uncommon. Shade, near water. 

A stocky little bird is the chickadee, renowned among bird lovers 
for its cheery call of "chick-a-dee-dee!", its friendliness to man and 
its acrobatic activities in search of the insects on which it lives. Usu' 
ally keeps in small flocks, feeding along from tree to tree, clinging, 
upside down as like as not, to leaves and small twigs, fearless even 
within a few feet of an observer. In winter keeps company with king- 
lets and other small birds of similar feeding habits. 

Resident. Very common. Willows, oa\s, conifers. 

One of the few birds of unmar\ed, solid color and one of our 
smallest bodied. Except during nesting time, found in flocks of several 
families banded together, which go hunting through trees for larvae, 
scale and other small insects. When one bird flies to another tree the 
flock straggles after, feeding mostly among outer twigs and keeping 
up a gentle twitter. Builds long, bag'like nest of soft stuff, camou- 
flaged with lichens and feather-lined, with tiny entrance near top. 

Resident. Very common. Throughout Par\. 

— 71 — 


Hylocichla ustulata ustulata (Nuttall). — iy 2 in. 

Above deep russeubrown; light buffy 
cycling; throat and breast light, warm 
buff, with wedge'like, dus\y spots point- 
ing upward; belly whitish; flank plain 
brownish. Bill dark above, light below; 
feet light brown. 

Hylocichla guttata nanus (Audubon). — 7 in. 

Olive-brown above; throat and breast 
very light buffy, heavily marked with dark 
up'pointed, wedge-like spots; belly whit- 

ish; light eye-ring; tail reddiih-brown, 
contrasting with black- Bill black above, 
lighter below; feet light brown. 

Lanius ludovicianus gambeli Ridgway. — 10 in. 

Top of head, hind neck and back bluish 
gray; blac\ stripe across forehead back, 
through eye, to neck; wing and tail blac\, 
former with u>htte patches, and latter 
mostly black above and white beneath, 
outer feather entirely white; rump white; 
under parts plain whitish. The above 
markings make strong contrasts. Bill 
black, stout, distinctly hooked; feet black. 




A shy bird, keeping mostly under cover and more often heard than 
seen; never flocks. Bac\ and tail with little, if any, contrast. Mostly 
feeds on ground upon insects, but also eats berries and some fruits. 
Nests low, in dense growth. Has a beautiful, somewhat belMike song 
or whistle of ascending notes, mostly heard in morning and evening. 
Also several call notes — a soft short, whistled qwoit! a longer whistled 
crescendo, '\o\X'it'tt\ and one or two minor calls. 

Summer. Common. T^ear la\es and willows. 

In habits and appearance much like preceding species but smaller, 
back more olive-brown, tail more reddish, in noticeable contrast to 
back and wings; throat and breast lighter and more heavily spotted. 
Song of similar character to that of Russet-backed Thrush, but given 
in short phrases, the pitch of which is frequently changed. Occa- 
sionally heard in this latitude as spring draws near. Has a call note 
very similar to that of preceding species. 

Winter. Common, not numerous. 

Dense shrubbery, or nearby. 

A stocky, short'winged bird, that flies mostly near the ground, 
showing conspicuous field marks. Uses post, dead limb or fence wire 
for lookout, from which it makes sallies upon mice, large insects, 
lizards, even small birds, diving from its perch with a low swoop. 
Called "Butcher Bird" from its habit of impaling victims not at once 
wanted upon thorns, barbs of fence wire, etc. Nesting record from 
near Lake Merced. 

Fall and Winter. Rare. Open land near brush. 

73 — 



Vireo gilvus swainsonii Baird. — 5J4 in. 

Above gray, olivcwashcd; without eye- 
ring, but with dull, light stripe over eye; 
no wing-bar; below white, tinged with 
yellowish. Bill dusky above; feet gray. 


Dendroica aestiva brewsteri Grinnell. — 4|/£ in. 

Top of head, bright yellow; rest of up- 
per parts greenish-yellow, below bright 
yellow, breast and sides narrowly streaked 
with chestnut; wing and tail rather dusky, 
feathers yellowedged, yellow patches near 
end of outer tail feathers. Female paler, 
streaking slight. Bill dark, slender; feet 
light brown. 

Dendroica coronata hooveri McGregor. — 5 in. 

Winter plumage: upper parts mostly 
grayish brown, somewhat streaked, crown- 
patch (mostly concealed), rump and spot 
each side of breast bright yellow; below 
whitish, brown-washed, streaked; throat 

white; three outer tail feathers with white 
patches near end. In spring brown streak- 
ing replaced by black; yellow spots 
brighter. Bill black. 

— 74 


Deliberate in actions and rather hard to see, as mostly stays high 
up in trees, but is an incessant singer and can be located by sound 
more easily than by sight. Song a sort of rolling warble, rather shrill 
but pleasing. Has also one or two call notes. Absence of wing'bars 
and eye'ring, and only mark a light stripe over eye, distinguish it 
from other vireos. Bill heavier than that of any of the Warbler 

Summer. Rare. Chain of la\es. 

The brightness of yellow of this species, shrillness of song and 
quickness of actions serve well to identify the male, but the female is 
less easy for a beginner to separate from the female Lutescent or 
Pileolated Warbler, though lighter in color than either. A very active 
bird, feeding along from tree to tree, looking for small insects and 
constantly giving a sharp little song. As with all warblers, the bill is 

Summer. Common. Hear la\es. 

In habits and appearance very similar to Audubon Warbler, the 
principal difference being that the throat is white and that only three 
tail feathers show white areas, whereas the Audubon has yellow throat 
and four or five tail feathers with white showing. For further descrip- 
tion see next species. 

Winter. Rare. Hear la\es. 

— 75 — 


Dendroica auduhoni auduboni (J. K. Townsend). — 5 in. 

Like Alaska Myrtle, except throat bright 
yellow and five outer tail feathers with 
white patches. Both species with white 
patches on wing. Toward spring marking 
is much brighter, black streaking and 
black on upper breast and on flank very 
strong. Female duller. Bill and feet black. 


Wilsonia pusilla chryseola Ridgway. — 4^4 in. 

Male with blac\ crown' patch and bright 
yellow forehead, otherwise bright green' 
ish yellow above; below bright yellow. 

Female and immature duller in color and 
black cap often absent. Bill dark above, 
light below; feet brown. 


Zamelodia mehnocephala. capitalis (Baird). — 7 in. 

Head, chee\ and chin black, narrow 
tawny stripe on side of nape; back mot' 
tied black, tawny and white; rump, throat, 
collar and lower parts tawny or orange 
brown, latter centrally lemon yellow; 
wing and tail with white patches, yellow 
under wing. Female lighter, duller, slightly 
streaked below. Bill heavy, conical, black. 
Finch family. 

76 — 


Commonest of our winter warblers. Has jive yellow spots — crown, 
rump, throat and one each side lower breast, whereas preceding 
species has throat white. Females in winter and immatures often difE' 
cult to distinguish. Male adult in spring has heavy black markings on 
breast, black streaking above instead of brownish, and more brilliant 
white and yellow showing. Makes frequent sallies into air, flycatcher 
fashion. Flight irregular and zigzag. Call note a sharp "tsip". Fairly 
good song, seldom heard in winter. Sometimes feeds on ground. 

Winter. Very common. Willows, high trees. 

A very brightly colored and very active bird in its hunt for insects 
among the foliage of shrubs and trees, and hence rather easily noted. 
Black cap of male is a good field mark, but not always seen from be 
low if bird is at rest. Has sharp song, like that of Yellow Warbler 
but not so shrill. Female, with black cap hidden or absent, might be 
confused by beginner with Yellow or Lutescent Warbler. Call note a 
sharp "tchip". 

Summer. Common. Around la\es. 

Has so many field marks that it is easy to identify. One of our 
best singers, with song something like, but sweeter than, that of 
Robin. Sings from tree top, often in flight, on nest, as male assists in 
incubation, or any place except when on ground, where it sometimes 
feeds. Young birds have a soft, sweet whistle. Immature males have 
markings between those of adult male and female. Fond of fruit and 
often does damage in orchards. Also eats butter, etc., around camps. 

Summer. Uncommon in Par\. Middle La\e. 




Passerina amoena (Say). — 5J4 in. 

Adult male with head, nec\ and bac\ blue. Female and young: grayish brown 

turquoise blue, latter sometimes brown- above; rump light bluish; below light 

washed; breast cinnamon, rest of lower brown, to whitish on belly. Bill and feet 

parts white; wing and tail blackish brown, dark. Finch family. 
wing with white bar; tail tinged with 


Spinus tristis salicamans Grinnell. — 4% in. 

Male, in summer plumage bright canary 
yellow; forehead, wing and tail black, 
two white wing-bars; tail with white at 
end. Female, brownish-olive above, yel- 
lowish below, throat brightest; wing and 
tail dusky, wing-bars grayish. In winter 
male also brownish. Young browner. Bill 
and feet light in summer. 

Spinus psaltria hesperophilus (Oberholser). — 4 in. 

Male with black cap, back olive-green; 
wing and tail blackish, former with white 
area in middle, latter with white near 
base; under parts greenish yellow. Fe- 
male duller, more grayish above. Bill 
dusky; feet brownish. 

— 78 


Adult male can hardly be confused with that of any other Park 
species, the nearest possibility being the Western Bluebird which, 
however, is darker in color, without white marking and considerably 
larger. The white belly and prominently white wing bar of the La- 
zuli Bunting are easy field marks. Absence of striking marks in female 
and young make identification more difficult, but these are much 
smaller than Bluebird, lighter below and have wing-bars showing. In' 
cessant singer throughout day, with rather shrill song. 

Summer. Very rare. Brush or small trees. 

Adult male in spring is very attractive, with bright coloring and 
with pleasant, lively song; has also a characteristic twittering song, 
given while fluttering over nest, and also some call notes. In appear' 
ance so like the domestic variety as to be called by many people 
"Wild Canary." In winter plumage is largely rich brown in place of 
yellow, but always with light wing mar\ings. Flocks. Flight undu' 
lating, alternating a few wing-strokes and then dipping with wings 
closed. Bill typically finch-like. 

Summer. Occasional. Willows. 

Also much like tame canary. Dar\er than Willow Goldfinch and 
with much less distinct markings; top of head entirely black in adult 
male; white on wing fairly conspicuous, especially in flight. In win- 
ter both sexes duller. Habits much like preceding species, but song 
more like that of tame canary. Feeds on seeds of composite flowers, 
such as thistle, dandelion, etc., bending head over swaying plants to 
get seed. Song and call notes when flying very characteristic. 

Resident. Very common. Willows, ground and high trees. 

— 79 



Spinus lawrencei Cassin. — 4j/$ in. 

Male with face, throat and fore part of 
head blac\; breast with yellow area; wing 
blackish, some yellow showing; tail black' 
ish with white showing in flight; rest of 
plumage gray. Female duller, without 
black on head. Bill of male pinkish, feet 
brown; bill of female dusky above, light 


Mehspiza melodia santaecrucis Grinnell. — 5^4 * n 

Mostly rich, dar\ brown above, black 
and graystreaked, central gray stripe over 
crown, some black lines on gray of side 
of head; below white, with black'Streak' 
ing, dark spot on breast. Wings and tail 
short, latter up'tilted. Bill dusky; feet 

— 80 — 


Easily recognized as of Goldfinch group, and combination of blac\ 
face and throat with distinctly gray body color makes the male easy 
to identify. The gray and yellow of the female is also distinctive, but 
not so prominent. Flight of same character as of above goldfinches. 
Song rather weak, but characteristic; call note is low and tinkly. A 
very irregular bird in its appearance in a locality, often not showing 
up for two or three years in succession, though perhaps abundant the 
following year. 

Summer. Rare. Willows. 

Friendly little bird, to be found in damp places or around thick 
bushes. Easily identified by combination of being streamed with black 
both above and below, central streaks running to form a spot on 
breast, and tail uplifted. Feeds mostly on ground, scratching among 
litter under bushes or in damp places. Good singer, with typical song 
that yet varies with individual. Might be confused with Lincoln Spar' 
row, but latter smaller, rather different shade of coloring and not yet 
recorded from Park. Never flocks. 

Resident. Common. Under brush or in damp place. 

81 — 



Of very large size; plumage black, feathers ruffled; bill red. 

Very large. Entirely white except for black at base of bill; black 
lump at base of upper mandible, rest of bill pinkish orange. 

Very large. Plumage white; bill and feet black. 

Very large. Plumage white. Bill very long, with large pouch below. 

Large. Mostly gray, but head and neck black; white band from 
cheek across throat. 


Medium size; field marks similar to last. 


Much smaller, but similar to above. 


Medium size. Brownish gray; white around base of upper bill, belly 
mottled with black and white spots or bands. 

Small. White except black tips to wings; bill reddish, with black on 
side; feet reddish. 

White. Bill and feet reddish to yellowish. 

Very dark, brownish and greenish, with metallic sheen; wing with 
large white patch. Bill bright red, with ridges and carbuncles. 
*Not native. 

82 — 


Letters following names of birds indicate mode of occurrence: 
R, permanent resident; W, winter resident; S, summer resident; 
O W, occasional visitant, winter; O S, occasional visitant, summer; 
Sp, spring visitant; F, fall visitant. 


Baldpate, W 10 

Bittern, American, 26 

Western least, O S 26 

Blackbird, California Brewer, R 60 

San Francisco Red-winged, R 30 

Bluebird, Western, W 58 

Buffle-head, W 16 

Bunting, Lazuli, S 78 

Bush-Tit, Coast, R 70 

Canvasback, W 14 

Chickadee, Santa Cruz, R 70 

Coot, American, R 18 

Creeper, Sierra, O W 42 

Crossbill, American, O W 52 

Crow, Western, 40 

Dove, Western Mourning, O S 54 

Duck, Ring-necked, W 14 

Ruddy, R 18 

Finch, California Purple, R 50 

Flicker, Red-shafted, R 36 

Flycatcher, Olive-sided, O S 38 

Western, S 70 

Gallinule, Florida, F 28 

Goldfinch, Green-backed, R 78 

Lawrence, O S 80 

Willow, R 78 

Grebe, American Eared, W 8 

Holboell, O W 8 

Pied-billed, R 8 

Western, O W 6 

Grosbeak, Pacific Black-headed, S.... 76 


Gull, California, W 22 

Glaucus-winged, W 20 

Ring-billed, W 22 

Western, R 22 

Hawk, Cooper, W 32 

Desert Sparrow, R 34 

Red-bellied, O W 34 

Sharp-shinned, W 32 

Western Red-tailed, R 34 

Heron, Anthony Green, O S 24 

Black-crowned Night, O W 24 

California Great Blue, 24 

Hummingbird, Allen, S 66 

Anna, R 66 

Jay, California, 40 

Coast, O 38 

Junco, Point Pinos, R 52 

Killdeer, R 54 

Kingfisher, Western Belted, R 66 

Kinglet, Western Golden-crowned, 

W 44 

Western Ruby-crowned, W 46 

Lark, California Horned, O W 56 

Linnet, California, R 50 

Loon, Common, O W 6 

Red-throated, O W 6 

Mallard, R 10 

Meadowlark, Western, R 60 

Nuthatch, Red-breasted, O W 40 



Owl, Barn, R 36 

Burrowing, R 54 

Pelican, California Brown, 10 

Pewee, Western Wood, S 38 

Phalarope, Northern, Sp, F 20 

Phoebe, Black, R 68 

Say. W 56 

Pigeon, Band-tailed, 36 

Pintail, W 12 

Pipit, American, W 58 

Quail, California, R 52 

Rail, Sora. O S 28 

Virginia, S 26 

Robin, Western, R 44 

Sapsucker. Sierra Red-breasted, W.. 68 

Scaup, Lesser, R 14 

Scoter, Surf, O W 16 

White-winged. O W 16 

Shoveller, W 12 

Shrike, California, 72 

Siskin. Pine, R 50 

Snipe. Wilson, W 28 

Sparrow, English, R 60 

Gambel White-crowned, W 64 

Golden-crowned, W 64 

Nuttall White-crowned, R 64 


Santa Cruz Song, R 

Western Chipping, S 

Yakutat Fox, W 

Tanager, Western, O 

Teal, Green-winged, O W 

Thrush, Coast Varied, W 

Dwarf Hermit, W 

Russet-backed, S 

Towhee, San Francisco Spotted, R.. 
Vireo, Hutton, R 

Western Warbling, S 

Vulture, Turkey, O S 

Warbler, Alaska Myrtle, W 

Pacific Audubon, W 

California Yellow, S 

Golden Pileolated, S 

Lutescent, S 

Townsend, W 

Waxwing, Cedar. O W 

Woodpecker, Willow, R 

Wren, Vigors, R 

Western House, S 

Western Winter, O W 

Wren-Tit, Intermediate, R 

Yellowthroat, San Francisco, R 

— 84 —